How to install PostgreSQL on CentOS 9 stream

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I. Introduction

PostgreSQL  has made its own statement that they are “The World’s Most Advanced Open Source Database”. So what makes PostgreSQL so confident? Then in this article we will learn what Postgresql is and the outstanding features that make Postgresql so powerful around the world in the following article.

What is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL  is a general-purpose object-relational database management system, the most advanced open source database system available today.

PostgreSQL was developed based on POSTGRES 4.2 at the Berkeley computer science department, University of California. PostgreSQL is designed to run on UNIX-like platforms. However, PostgreSQL was also dynamically adapted to run on many different platforms such as Mac OS X, Solaris, and Windows.

PostgreSQL is a free and open source software. The software’s source code is available under the PostgreSQL license, a freely open source license. Accordingly, you will be free to use, modify, and distribute PostgreSQL in any form.

PostgreSQL does not require too much maintenance because it is highly stable. Therefore, if you develop applications based on PostgreSQL, the cost of ownership will be lower than with other data management systems.

Why use PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL   has a rich set of features that help developers build applications, administrators to protect data integrity, and create fault-tolerant environments that help you manage  data regardless of location. . Big or small data set. Besides being free and open source, PostgreSQL also has excellent scalability.

PostgreSQL follows the SQL standard but does not conflict with traditional features or could lead to harmful architectural decisions. Many SQL standard features are supported, but sometimes there may be slightly different syntax or functions.

 Some different features of PostgreSQL

1. Data type:

  • Primitives: Integer, Number, String, Boolean
  • Structure: Date/Time, Array, Range, UUID
  • Document: JSON/JSONB, XML, Key-value (Hstore)
  • Geometry: Point, Line, Circle, Polygon
  • Custom: Composite, custom style

2. Data integrity:

  • UNIQUE, NOT NULL
  • Main courses
  • Foreign key
  • Exclusion constraints
  • Function key/Clear key,Recommended key/Advisory key

3. At the same time, performance:

  • Cataloging: B-Tree, Multiple Columns, Expressions, Partial
  • Advanced cataloging: GiST, SP-Gist, KNN Gist, GIN, BRIN, Bloom filters
  • Sophisticated query planner/optimizer, index scanning, multi-column statistics.
  • Transactions, Transactions in the form of groups (through save points)
  • Concurrent Version Control (MVCC)
  • Parallel read queries
  • Table partition
  • All levels of transaction independence are defined in the SQL standard, including Serializable
  • Reliability, disaster recovery
  • Write Ahead Logging (WAL)
  • Replication: Asynchronous, synchronous, logical
  • Point-in-time recovery (PITR), active standby
  • Tablespace
  • Security: Authentication: GSSAPI, SSPI, LDAP, SCRAM-SHA-256, Certificates and others, Robust access control system, Column and row level security
  • Procedural languages: PL/PGSQL, Perl, Python (and many others)
  • External data wrapper: connects to another database or stream using a standard SQL interface
  • Text Search: Supports international character sets, for example via ICU collation, Full Text Search

II. Installation Instructions

To install PostgreSQL on CentOS 9 stream, you can follow these 4 steps.

Step 1: SSH into your VPS

To install  PostgreSQL, we first need to SSH or access your VPS or server as root.

After SSH is successful, we continue with step 2 which is Installing PostgreSQL.

Step 2: Install PostgreSQL

First, list all available PostgreSQL server versions using the following command:

dnf module list postgresql

You will get a list of all PostgreSQL versions in the following output:

CentOS 9 - AppStream                                                                                     6.9 MB/s | 9.7 MB     00:01
CentOS 9 - BaseOS                                                                                        8.5 MB/s | 6.7 MB     00:00
CentOS 9 - Extras                                                                                         30 kB/s |  12 kB     00:00
CentOS 9 - AppStream
Name                         Stream                   Profiles                            Summary
postgresql                   9.6                      client, server [d]                  PostgreSQL server and client module
postgresql                   10 [d]                   client, server [d]                  PostgreSQL server and client module
postgresql                   12                       client, server [d]                  PostgreSQL server and client module
postgresql                   13                       client, server [d]                  PostgreSQL server and client module

Hint: [d]efault, [e]nabled, [x]disabled, [i]nstalled
  • Enable PostgreSQL repository

As you can see, the latest PostgreSQL version 14 is not included in the above output. So you will need to add the PostgreSQL repository to your server.
You can install it using the following command:

dnf install -y https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/reporpms/EL-8-x86_64/pgdg-redhat-repo-latest.noarch.rpm

Once the repository is installed, you will need to disable the default PostgreSQL repository.

dnf -qy module disable postgresql
  • Install PostgreSQL

The next step about to installing the PostgreSQL server on CentOS Stream 9 is to run the following command to install the latest PostgreSQL server:

dnf install postgresql14-server -y
  • Initialize the database

Once the PostgreSQL is installed, initialize the PostgreSQL database using the following command:

/usr/pgsql-14/bin/postgresql-14-setup initdb
  • Start PostgreSQL
systemctl start postgresql-14
systemctl enable postgresql-14

Check the status of the PostgreSQL service using the following command:

systemctl status postgresql-14
 postgresql-14.service - PostgreSQL 14 database server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/postgresql-14.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2022-03-17 13:34:07 UTC; 5s ago
     Docs: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/14/static/
  Process: 1950 ExecStartPre=/usr/pgsql-14/bin/postgresql-14-check-db-dir ${PGDATA} (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 1955 (postmaster)
    Tasks: 8 (limit: 11412)
   Memory: 16.8M
   CGroup: /system.slice/postgresql-14.service
           ├─1955 /usr/pgsql-14/bin/postmaster -D /var/lib/pgsql/14/data/
           ├─1957 postgres: logger
           ├─1959 postgres: checkpointer
           ├─1960 postgres: background writer
           ├─1961 postgres: walwriter
           ├─1962 postgres: autovacuum launcher
           ├─1963 postgres: stats collector
           └─1964 postgres: logical replication launcher

Mar 17 13:34:07 linux systemd[1]: Starting PostgreSQL 14 database server...
Mar 17 13:34:07 linux postmaster[1955]: 2022-03-17 13:34:07.269 UTC [1955] LOG:  redirecting log output to logging collector process
Mar 17 13:34:07 linux postmaster[1955]: 2022-03-17 13:34:07.269 UTC [1955] HINT:  Future log output will appear in directory "log".
Mar 17 13:34:07 linux systemd[1]: Started PostgreSQL 14 database server.

Step 3: PostgreSQL Roles and Authentication Methods

Database access in PostgreSQL is handled with the concept of Roles. A Role can represent a user or a group of users.

PostgreSQL supports multiple authentication methods. The most commonly used methods are:

  • Trust  – With this method, the Role can connect without a password, as long as the criteria defined in  pg_hba.conf are met.
  • Password  – A Role can connect by providing a password. Passwords can be stored as  scram-sha-256,  md5  or unencrypted text.
  • Ident  – This method is only supported on  TCP/IP connections. It works by getting the client OS username, with optional username mapping.
  • Peer  – Similar to Ident but it only supports local connections ( Local ).

PostgreSQL client authentication is defined in a configuration file named  pg_hba.conf. By default, for internal connections ( Local ), PostgreSQL will use the Peer authentication method.

The Postgres user is automatically created when you install PostgreSQL. This user is the superuser of  PostgreSQL and it is equivalent to the root user in  MySQL.

By default, PostgreSQL listens on port 5432. You can check it with the following command:

ss -antpl | grep -i postmaster

You will get the following output:

LISTEN 0      128        127.0.0.1:5432      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("postmaster",pid=1955,fd=7))
LISTEN 0      128            [::1]:5432         [::]:*    users:(("postmaster",pid=1955,fd=6))

To log to the PostgreSQL server as User Postgres, you need to first switch to User Postgres and then access the PostgreSQL prompt using the psql utility:

sudo su - postgres 
psql

The following output  will appear:

psql (14.0)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=#

You can also access PostgreSQL without switching users with the sudo command:

sudo -u postgres psql
The postgres user is normally only used with internal connections ( Local ) and a password should not be set for this user.

Step 4: Create Role and PostgreSQL Database

Only superusers and users with  CREATEROLE privileges  can create new Roles.

In the following example, we will create a new Roles named  technology   and a database named  technology_data and then grant privileges on the database.

  • Connect to Shell PostgreSQL
sudo -u postgres psql
  • Create a new PostgreSQL Role

The following command will create a new Role named tech:

create role technology;
  • Create a new PostgreSQL database

Create a new database named  technology_data  with the createdb command:

create database technology_data;
  • Grant permission

To grant permission to user  technology  on the database  technology_data  created in the previous step, run the following query:

grant all privileges on database technology_data to technology;

 

III. Summary

So in this article, We has shown you how to quickly install PostgreSQL on CenOS 7, so that you can experience the most powerful open source database management software available today.


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